Kandy is the last capital of the Sinhala king, away 120kms from Colombo, is remarkable for the natural beauty of its setting in a peaceful wooded valley overlooking a vast artificial lake. Strategically nestled amidst three mountain ranges and known as the gateway to the hill country, Kandy was initially built in this location as a natural fortress against attack. Kandy was not an easy target for the foreign invaders who could gain the control of coastal areas of the island without too much loss. Kandy’s main architectural monuments date mainly from the 19th Century when King Sri Vikrama Rajasinghe, the last King of Kandy, constructed many new buildings. The most valuable monument of this city is Temple of tooth relic. At the time of the eventual surrender of Kandy to British Rule in 1815, King Rajasinghe was captured, imprisoned and finally deported to India where he died in 1832.
The geographical location of the Kandy was very important in creating a natural defense strategy. The city was built in a valley surrounded by three mountain ranges: Udawattakele to the east, The Hanthana range on one side and the Bahiravakanda the other. The river Mahawali, flowing toward the north-west, turns back on itself towards south-west, forming triangular boundary. This natural system of defense was very useful in protecting the city for many attempted invasions by the Dutch and British.