Polonnaruwa, The medieval capital of Sri Lanka from the eleventh to the end of the first quarter of the thirteenth century A.D. is situated in the dry zone of the North-central province. During the first millennium A.D, when Sri Lanka’s capital Anuradhapura was flourishing, Polonnaruwa preserved as a fortified outpost (Kandavurunuwara) where the Sinhala garrisons camped during period Anuradhapura. Polonnaruwa was a strategic location because of Mahawali River.
The first capital of Anuradhapura which was abandoned in 1070 when it was ransacked by the Chola invaders from South India, Polonnaruwa was first declared the alternative capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders to reunite the country. While this victory and shifting of Kingdoms to Polonnaruwa is important, it is the later reign of his grandson, King Parakramabahu I that is considered the Golden Age of Polonnaruwa, when trade and agriculture flourished under his patronage. He was adamant that not one drop of rainwater was to be returned to the ocean wasted, without being used develops the land. Hence, irrigation systems far superior to those Anuradhapura age were constructed in Polonnaruwa during the Parakramabahu's reign.
The principle groups of monuments are rising up the city of Polonnaruwa. Visitors are staring from the southern entrance to the site and progressing to north. Potgulvehera monastery, The citadel and place complex, The quadrangle, Manikvehera monastery complex, Alahanaparivena, artifacts and inscription, Galvihara, The North temple, Thawhindhu temple, The garden of Plonnaruwa.
• Potgul Vihara
At the end of the city, outside the royal Garden of Nandana Uyana is the monastery. The location of the site and the statue is very likeness.
• The citadel and palace complex
Moving north from the Potgul Vihara, hoe came to the citadel with its storied places complex, assembly hall, and the stone bathing pool of the royal garden.
• The quadrangle
Leaving the citadel by its northern gate, one comes to the scared quadrangle containing some of the earliest and most scared monuments of the Polonnaruwa.
• Manik vihara complex
Leaving the outer city, one comes to the monastery complexes which comprise several stupas, shrine and assembly hall as their central and dominated feature.
Galvihara , the most celebrated site in the Polonnaruwa and one of the famous on the whole world.